benjiPosted under XP.

This week I have been reading Simon Brown’s leanpub book “Software Architecture for Developers”. It is an interesting read and has lots of useful advice for creating a shared technical vision and communicating technical concepts effectively via sketches.

One thing I was struck by while reading it is just how many of the responsibilities of the “Software Architect” as a person’s role are unnecessary in well functioning cross-functional team. A lot of the book is dedicated to why software architects are needed to work around what seem to be organisational antipatterns

Avoiding integration problems at delivery time

Development teams need to converse with technical stakeholders regularly just as with customers. Otherwise the project might be delayed towards the end of the delivery cycle due to not having the appropriate production environments set up, missing licences, or a separate operations team being unwilling to support it.

One way to avoid this is to regularly discuss your progress with technical stakeholders in the same way you would with your customers.

If the team is practising continuous delivery and deploying every feature they build to a production environment they will not run into this problem. The first thing the team does will be to create a project that can be automatically deployed to production. They provision the production environments and perform a deployment. They will deliver working increments of the software into production after every feature they build.

In this scenario “late in the delivery cycle” might be towards the end of the first day or maybe the second.

Many problems can be mitigated by applying the principle of minimising feedback loops. The more frequently we get feedback the less painful, and the more useful it is. It will be immediately relevant and we won’t have wasted time on a poorly chosen approach. This is one of the reasons pair programming is so useful.

Continuous delivery forces us to get feedback from all relevant stakeholders as frequently as possible. It won’t just be our customers looking at features, we can’t put off getting feedback from stakeholders who have input on operational setup, security, budgets for licences/servers and so on.

Where possible, I think it is best to bundle these specialities into the development team itself. Give the team all the skills needed to deliver the product effectively. Whenever the team has to hand over to other teams there will be communication issues, delays, and other sources of friction.

Owning the big picture

The book makes the point that “Somebody needs to own the big picture” and steer the direction of a software project. The problem with anything important that has “somebody” owning it is that it is an immediate bus-factor for your project. It’s best if more than one person is ensuring there is a shared big picture.

Not only does this allow for people leaving the team but means that there is more chance of picking up on important issues.

Simon actually makes this point “This problem goes away with truly self-organising teams”

Architecture is a responsibility of the team

It is important that thought is given to the structure of a system as a whole, how it interacts with other systems, key tradeoffs, meeting non-functional requirements, keeping the system maleable and avoiding it becoming resistant to change, ensuring a shared technical vision. These are some of the things that might be part of an architect’s role.

However, I don’t think this means you need a person whose role is the Architect on a team, any more than any other role. It is a responsibility of the team. In an ideal team, each member would be thinking about overlapping and complementary issues. If the team is lacking skills/experience in these areas and is dropping these responsibilities it may be useful to have a specialist. Just the same as with QA, Ops, UX, product managers or any other area where you might require specialists.

Decisions are better made by those affected

Decisions that affect the complexity and reliability of a production system are better made by those affected – i.e. people who will be responsible for keeping it running.

Similarly developers are in the best position to make decisions about tradeoffs that increase the complexity of implementation of maintenance – because they will be affected.

In an ideal team everyone will work on some aspects of implementation, maintenance, operations, and planning for the future. Consequently they will be in a good position to make decisions that trade-off cost in one area for benefit in another.

If technical decisions are made by someone with no skin in the game then they might not be the best decisions, and those affected may not buy in to them.

Fix the organisation first

To quote the book again

“In an ideal world, these cross-discipline team members would work together to run and deliver a software project, undertaking everything from requirements capture and architecture through to coding and deployment. Although many software teams strive to be self-organising, in the real world they tend to be larger, more chaotic and staffed only with specialists.”

Why not work on the organisational problems that mean we’re not in this “ideal world” and consequently reduce the need for specialist software architecture roles?

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